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Table 2 Material and simulation parameters for three-dimensional examples

From: A simple yet consistent constitutive law and mortar-based layer coupling schemes for thermomechanical macroscale simulations of metal additive manufacturing processes

Quantity Description Value Unit
\(E_s\) Young’s modulus in solid 200 GPa
\(E_p,E_m\) (Artificial) Young’s modulus in powder and melt 2 GPa
\(\nu \) Poisson ratio 0.3
\(\alpha _T\) Coefficient of thermal expansion \(15\times 10^{-6}\) K\(^{-1}\)
\(c_s\) Volumetric specific heat, solid 4.25 \(\hbox {M J m}^{-3}\hbox { K}^{-1}\)
\(c_p\) Volumetric specific heat, powder 2.98 \(\hbox {M J m}^{-3}\hbox { K}^{-1}\)
\(c_m\) Volumetric specific heat, melt 5.95 \(\hbox {M J m}^{-3}\hbox { K}^{-1}\)
\(k_s,k_m\) Conductivity in solid and melt 20 \(\hbox {W m}^{-1}\hbox { K}^{-1}\)
\(k_p\) Conductivity in powder 0.2@200, 0.3@1600 \(\hbox {W m}^{-1}\hbox { K}^{-1}\)@K
\(h_m\) Latent heat of fusion 2.18 \(\hbox {GJ m}^{-3}\)
\(T_0\) Initial/reference temperature 303 K
\(T_s\) Solidus temperature 1500 K
\(T_l\) Liquidus temperature 1900 K
\(\rho _h\) Hemispherical reflectivity 0.7
\(\beta _h\) Extinction coefficient 60 \(\hbox {mm}^{-1}\)
\(h_p\) Powder layer thickness 50 \(\upmu \hbox {m}\)
\(W_e\) Effective laser power 30 W
R Effective laser radius 0.08 mm
\(v_\text {scan}\) Laser scan speed 100 mm/ sec