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Table 1 Engine specifications and operational conditions

From: Investigation of pollutants formation in a diesel engine using numerical simulation

Bore \(\times \) Stroke 150 \(\times \) 180 mm
Engine displacement (1 cylinder) 3.18086 L
Compression ratio 13.1
Nozzle diameter 0.254 mm
Fuel Decane \(C_{10}H_{22}\)
Fuel injected per orifice 29.58 mg/cycle
Injection pressure 120 MPa
Injection start timing \(691^\circ \) CA
Injection duration \(20^\circ \) CA
Spray direction \(70^\circ \) with the cylinder axis
Coordinates of spray emanation point \(x=0, y=0, z=2e^{-5}\) m
Engine speed 2000 rpm
Number of nozzle orifices 6
Intake valve closed (IVC) \(570^\circ \) CA
Exhaust valve opened (EVO) \(833^\circ \) CA
Swirl number at IVC 1.3