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Table 1 Material properties used [24, 29, 35]

From: Three-dimensional finite element modeling of ductile crack initiation and propagation

Shear modulus G 80.19 GPa
Bulk modulus K 164.21 GPa
Initial flow stress \(\tau _{\mathrm {y}0}\) 0.45 GPa
Residual flow stress \(\tau _{\mathrm {y}\infty }\) 0.715 GPa
Linear hardening coefficient h 0.129 GPa
Saturation exponent \(\alpha \) 16.93
Damage initiation threshold \(\kappa _\mathrm {i}\) 0
Critical value of history parameter \(\kappa _\mathrm {c}\) 0.4
Intrinsic length \(\ell \) 1 mm
Damage parameter A 3.9
Damage parameter B 0.63